The most effective way to remove particles from a smooth surface is to wipe it with a soft filter and transferring the trace to the sample card. It also can be done using cotton gloves and the glove is then sampled using the vacuum sampler or simply rubbing against the sample card.

The hand held sampler was designed with air jets blowing on the surface to facilitate transfer of the particle from the surface to the front nozzle of the sampler. This also was found to help in stirring the air in an enclosure like a closed box prior to aspiration of the dislodged particles.